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Istilah “Jayus”

5 Aug

Istilah “Jayus”
[Dapat dari seorang sahabat]  @ MyQuran.com

Soal penggunaan istilah “jayus” yg kmrn sempet ramai dibicarakan oleh
beberapa rekan disni -yg tak lain mau tak mau dapat dikatakan hanya sebagai
korban tren pergaulan-, saya kutip dari hadits Rosululloh SAW berikut ini :

Rosululloh saw bersabda :
“Ada 10 golongan dari umatku tidak masuk surga, kecuali mereka bertaubat.
Mereka itu adalah : Qala’, JAYUS, Qattat, Dabub, Dayus, Shahibul Artabah,
Shahibul Khubah, ‘Uthull, Zaniem dan Al ‘Aq Liwalidaihi. Lalu para sahabat
bertanya apa arti yang 10 tersebut.

Rosululloh menjawab :
1. Qala’, yaitu orang penjilat yang keluar-masuk rumah penguasa (pejabat
pemerintah).
2. JAYUS, ialah orang yang mencuri kain kafan dalam kubur.
3. Qattat, yaitu orang yang suka mengadu domba.
4. Dabub, yaitu orang yng mengelola perempuan-perempuan untuk pelacuran.
5. Dayus, yaitu orang yang tidak cemburu terhadap istrinya.
6. Shahibul Arthabah, yaitu orang yang kerjanya memukul gendang.
7. Shahibul Khubah, yaitu orang yang kerjanya memukul genderang.
8. ‘Uthul, ialah orang yang tidak mau memaafkan kesalahan orang lain.
9. Zaniem, adalah anak zina dan suka nongkrong dipinggir jalan dan
menggunjing orang yang lewat.
10. Al ‘Aq Liwalidaihi, semua kita sudah memakluminya, yaitu orang yang
melawan kepada kedua ibu dan bapaknya.”

Nah, gmn? Hari gini masih jadi korban buta pergaulan? Jangan pernah ngaku
gaul kalo cuman ikut-ikutan. Ntar kecele sama kata-kata yang ngerti ga
artinya, baru tau rasa. Keciaaann…deh lo!

Yuk ah yuk…sebarin arti kata Jayus ini dimulai dari orang-orang terdekat
kita. Apa tega melihat mereka saling mengejek dengan pengertian orang yang
mencuri kain kafan dalam kubur? Saya juga menyesal karena sewaktu SMU dulu
blm sempat menyebarkan makna dari kata “Jayus” ini kebanyak orang. Coz,
kebetulan almamater itu – katanya- termasuk unggulan di tingkat Provinsi
(DKI), dan notabene bonafit lah, so udah pasti anak2nya pun kebanyakan
“anak-anak hore” (hedon).

Gaul? Oke. Funky? Boleh. Smarty? So pasti!!

Sumber : Ucapan Bijak Orang-orang Besardi Dunia (Mahyuddin Ibrahim).
__________________
Ya Allah, ampunilah dosa-dosaku dan kecerobohanku dalam menyikapi sesuatu

ELITE The House for Translating

25 Apr

Bagi anda-anda yang masih belajar bahasa Inggris, yang belum lancar membaca, belum apik dalam menulis apalagi menerjemahkan, anda dapat mengikuti disko (diskusi kelompok) dengan teman-teman kami free-english- course@yahoogrou p.com. atau melalui. Anda bisa daftar member di sini:
http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Free- English-Course/
dalam latihan menulis dan menerjemahkan.
Sebagai bahan panduan diskusi dapatkan artikel-artikel
– Tip Menulis dan Menerjemahkan.
– Tensis hanya dua.
– Membangun Noun Phrase.
Dari message list milis itu jika sulit mendapatkannya, kirim email ke masrur_ch@yahoo. com
Sampai ketemu di sana.

Masrur Ch
ELITE The House for Translating
for Trnslating Training and Service

[The Economist] Speaking In Tongues: South-East Asia’s Language Wars Continue

11 Feb

———- Forwarded message ———-
Date: Feb 7, 2008 1:40 AM
Subject: Economist: Speaking In Tongues: South-East Asia’s Language
Wars Continue

Economist.com
February 6, 2008

Asia.view

Speaking In Tongues: South-East Asia’s Language Wars Continue

HAD he been president of Indonesia, not France, Charles de
Gaulle might have modified his famous saying about cheeses and
asked how to govern a nation with over 700 different languages.
The answer, as elsewhere in South-East Asia, was to impose a
“national” tongue.

As the region’s countries became independent, most wanted their
citizenry to speak the same indigenous language. But choosing an
acceptable candidate sometimes proved difficult, laying the
ground for “language wars” that still rage.

A new collection of essays* from the Singapore-based Institute
of South-East Asian Studies (ISEAS) reviews the region’s
struggles to build monolingual nations. Several themes emerge:
first, globalisation is forcing governments to reconsider
restrictions on daily use of English; second, with the economic
rise of China, governments increasingly see their ethnic-Chinese
populations as assets rather than threats; and third,
democratisation and decentralisation may revive local and tribal
languages. Each of these trends may undermine the quest for a
unifying national language. AFP Studying globally

The language wars have been particularly bitter in the
Philippines. Shortly before the second world war, the
country—semi-independent but still under America’s sway—chose
Tagalog, already widely spoken in the populous region around
Manila, as its future national tongue. This annoyed speakers of
the archipelago’s 120-odd other languages, so a new, official
version was invented, incorporating bits and bobs from other
local tongues, called Pilipino, and later renamed Filipino.

Despite recurring rows, the adoption of Filipino by schools and
the mass media made the language almost universal. The 2000
census found that 96.4% of those with at least elementary
schooling could speak it.

But many Filipinos have come to realise the benefits of speaking
English—the de facto world language—and have grown concerned
over its waning use. Though the census showed that 64% of
over-fives could speak English, their fluency may be fading.

Record numbers of Filipinos work abroad; their remittances help
support the economy. Like India, the Philippines has also been
enjoying a boom in call centres and other outsourced work that
requires good English. So, in 2003, President Gloria Macapagal
Arroyo ordered schools to “return” to teaching mainly in English
(though, as ISEAS’s book shows, most were using it for
mathematics and science lessons all along).

That same year, the Malaysian government ordered a return to
teaching basic maths and science in English after decades of
aggressively promoting Malay. Again, this directive responded to
worries that a competitive advantage was being lost (similar
concerns surfaced in India and Sri Lanka too). Policies to force
Malay down the throats of Malaysia’s large ethnic Chinese and
Indian minorities have done more to divide than unite the
nation: many minority children now go to separate schools where
they mostly speak Chinese or Tamil, as they do at home.

Indonesia’s national language—a version of Malay called Bahasa
Indonesia or just Indonesian—is unusual in that it is not the
tongue of a dominant group: only about 3% of the population are
ethnic Malays. This has helped make it acceptable to the
country’s 300-odd other ethnicities, but means that it its
adoption has been slow. Even today, while over four-fifths of
the population understand Indonesian, only about a third use it
as their main language.

Indonesia’s former colony, Timor-Leste (not covered in ISEAS’s
book), uses Portuguese, the little-spoken language of a previous
bunch of imperialist invaders. That has left it tongue-tied:
Tetum, the main vernacular, is seen as insufficiently developed
for official use. Many people understand Indonesian but many no
longer want to hear it spoken. Having adopted the American
dollar instead of a national currency, the country may also see
a drift towards English, the language of its rich southern
neighbour, Australia.

Most South-East Asian countries have significant ethnic-Chinese
minorities, towards whom official attitudes have been at best
ambivalent. But China’s growth is encouraging some governments,
like Thailand’s, to promote the teaching of Chinese where once
they might have discouraged or barely tolerated it.

Similarly, Singapore is dominated by an ethnic-Chinese,
British-educated elite that has promoted English as the main
working language, but in 1998 the government launched a campaign
to encourage people to speak Mandarin. This was soon followed by
another to stop standards of English slipping: young
Singaporeans tend to speak slangy “Singlish”.

Most South-East Asian schools (Singapore excepted) struggle to
teach the basics; teaching world languages as well as the
national language may increase their struggles. In some
cases—notably Indonesia, where decentralisation since Suharto’s
fall in 1998 has boosted provincial power—the challenge will be
amplified by demands to restore the status of regional and
tribal languages.

Similar pressures may emerge in Thailand. Although standard
Bangkok Thai is compulsory for all school lessons, about a third
of the population, in the country’s north-east, speak Lao as
their native language—in December’s election candidates courted
voters there by addressing them in their own tongue.

Even authoritarian Vietnam is increasingly allowing broadcasts
in the languages of its small ethnic minorities. If Myanmar ever
democratises, its many ethnic groups will doubtless seek a
rollback of official efforts to promote Burmese, though, as the
ISEAS book notes, these have in fact helped opposition groups to
communicate with each other.

More worryingly, teaching global as well as local languages may
entrench class divides: while rich metropolitan kids enjoy
increasing returns from learning English and Chinese, schools in
the impoverished provinces, expected somehow to teach global,
national and local tongues, may fail to equip their pupils
adequately in any.

“Language, Nation and Development in South-East Asia”, edited by
Lee Hock Guan and Leo Suryadinata, published by the Institute of
South-East Asian Studies, Singapore.

Komunitas Pendidikan Kebudayaan BARU: Komunitas DikBud

21 Jan

Komunitas baru di Bidang Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

http://www.dikbud.net/

Pendidikan dikhawatirkan kian menjadi komoditas. Kekhawatiran itu
terutama dipicu oleh kebijakan pemerintah yang mencantumkan pendidikan
sebagai bidang usaha terbuka dengan persyaratan, yang membuka peluang
modal asing untuk masuk.

Persoalan ini mencuat dalam seminar bertajuk “Telaah Kritis Rancangan
Undang-Undang Badan Hukum Pendidikan dan Peraturan Presiden Nomor 76
dan 77 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing dalam Bidang Pendidikan” di
Jakarta, Senin (27/8). Seminar yang diselenggarakan Majelis Pendidikan
Dasar dan Menengah Pimpinan Pusat Muhammadiyah itu terutama menggugat
kecenderungan terkini, di mana perspektif ekonomi begitu kuat merasuki
dunia pendidikan.

Dalam Peraturan Presiden Nomor 76 dan 77 Tahun 2007?keduanya terkait
soal penanaman modal asing?disebutkan bahwa pendidikan dasar dan
menengah, pendidikan tinggi, dan pendidikan nonformal sebagai bidang
usaha dapat dimasuki modal asing dengan batas kepemilikan maksimal 49
persen.

“Kalau kepemilikan modal asing sampai di tingkat pendidikan dasar,
siapa yang akan bertanggung jawab menanamkan nilai-nilai kebangsaan?”
ujar mantan Rektor Universitas Gadjah Mada Sofian Effendi.

Hal senada diungkapkan Rektor Universitas Islam Indonesia Edy Suandi
Hamid, yang juga Ketua Forum Rektor Indonesia.

“Apa yang terjadi dengan peserta didik jika mereka mengonsumsi
pendidikan yang dimodali oleh orang asing? Tentu nilai-nilai
kebangsaan sendiri akan luntur. Pendidikan merupakan amanat konstitusi
sehingga negara tidak dapat lepas tangan, sekalipun dengan alasan demi
kemandirian, ” ujarnya.

Kebijakan pendidikan nasional yang dibuat pemerintah sering kali tak
diperhitungkan jauh ke depan. Hal itu lebih karena kebijakan
pendidikan nasional lebih didasarkan pada kepentingan politik
pemerintah saat itu daripada untuk kepentingan pendidikan berkualitas
bagi anak bangsa.

“Karena pendidikan itu lebih bergantung pada struktur kekuasaan yang
ada, maka kemajuan pendidikan bangsa ini juga sangat bergantung pada
komitmen p
olitik pemerintah. Jika komitmen politik itu rendah, ya, pendidikan
kita tidak akan berubah. Akan terus jauh ketinggalan dari
negara-negara lain,” kata tokoh pendidikan HAR Tilaar.

Kebijakan pendidikan Indonesia memang tepat diarahkan pada peningkatan
mutu pendidikan. Apalagi jika melihat dari laporan UNDP tahun 2006,
yang menempatkan indeks pembangunan manusia Indonesia di peringkat
ke-108 dari 177 negara.

Sayangnya, peningkatan mutu itu sering kali dicapai dengan kebijakan
yang tidak berakar dari guru, kepala sekolah, dan masyarakat itu
sendiri. Akibatnya, pemerintah masih terus saja berjalan dengan
kebijakan yang coba-coba dan berganti-ganti.

Upaya meningkatkan profesionalisme guru dan pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) sangat penting.

Dalam penyesuaian kurikulum dengan tuntutan lokal yang menjadi jiwa
KTSP, ternyata soal muatan lokal hanya dialokasikan dua jam pelajaran.
Seharusnya muatan lokal yang bukan dalam pengertian sempit itu
merupakan roh dari keseluruhan KTSP. Dengan kata lain, seluruh mata
pelajaran haruslah disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan lingkungan.

Pendidik sering kali dibingungkan dengan kebijakan pemerintah yang
sering kali berubah-ubah. Di satu pihak ada upaya untuk bisa
memberikan keleluasaan bagi guru dan sekolah untuk mengembangkan diri
sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka sendiri, tetapi di lain pihak mereka
tidak pernah dipersiapkan dengan kebijakan baru yang akan diterapkan.

Diskusikanlah di Forum ini, dinantikan partisipasi anda !

Moderator. Forum Dikbud

Slang Particles in Indonesian Language

7 Dec

http://www.kejut. com/partikelindo

by Yuku

There are so many ‘particles’ that often be spoken while speaking
Indonesian. A foreigner that has learnt Indonesian and comes to
Indonesia will of course be confused with so many ‘words’ that he/she
doesn’t understand. Even when an Indonesian himself, if he/she never
have thought about the particles, the meaning is also not understood.
For example, while eating meatball soup, a friend comes from behind
and asks, “Lagi makan apa sih? (“What are you eating sih?”). This
“sih” has no specific meaning, it only expresses feeling. This is the
advantage of using Indonesian than English, because there are so many
words indicating feeling, as it is with Japanese.

Yesterday a western asked me by email, she wanted to make an article
about Indonesian slang, then she asked me to check it first and to
give some suggestions etc. The fact that she has studied Indonesian
for quite a long time, the article is good enough, although some are
wrong and some feel unnatural. So I helped her and added a few new
words.

Because of that I become interested on it and now want to make an
article about it. I hope it can be followed and is useful for
foreigners that learn Indonesian (Actually I wrote the articles with
some particles, didn’t I?)

Let’s take a look one by one:

[1] deh

a. How about …

Coba dulu deh = How about trying it first?
Lanjutin besok lagi deh = How about continuing it tommorow?

b. I think … / I decide …

Mau yang mana? ~ Yang biru deh = Which one do you want? ~ I think I’ll
choose the blue one.
Aku pergi deh = I think I’m going now / Better if I go.

[2] dong

a. indeed / of course / You should have known that …

Kamu dapet kue gratis juga? Dapet dong = Did you get the free cake? Of
course I got it.
Suka yang mana? (choosing a girl) ~ Yang itu dong = Which one do you
like? ~ Of course him/her (I think you think the same too)

d. soften a prohibition or command

example:
Jangan keras-keras dong (lagunya) = Don’t set it so loud please (the music)
Eh, kertasnya masukin semua dong = Hey, please insert all the paper!

[3] eh

a. Hey (requesting attention)

Eh, sini sebentar = Hey, come here for a minute!

b. Correcting incorrectly spoken words / “I mean”

Tadi kan aku kasih kamu dua ratus, eh dua ribu? = Didn’t I give you
two hundred… I mean two thousand?

c. By the way (changing topic)

Eh, inget ga tempat ini? = By the way, do you remember this place?

[4] kan

a. Isn’t it (question tag to assert)

Dia yang namanya Adi kan? = He is the one called Adi, right?
Bagus kan? = Good, isn’t it?

b. Didn’t you remember that …

Hah, dia mau datang? ~ Kan mu yang bilang, masa lupa? = Heh, he is
coming? ~ Wasn’t it you who said it to me, how can you forget?

c. Because

Kenapa ga masukin kulkas aja? ~ Mana cukup, kan kulkasnya kecil = Why
don’t you put it in the fridge? ~ It’s not enough, because the fridge
is small.

[5] ko / kok

a. Why (asking) / I wonder why (just expresses wonder)

Ko kamu telat? = Why are you late?
Ko bisa dia dipukul papanya, aneh = I wonder why he is attacked by his
father, it’s strange.

b. Actually … (denying assumption)

Makan di sana enak ga? Aku ga pernah ke sana ko = Is it nice to eat
there? Actually I haven’t been there (I don’t know)
Tiap hari aku tidur 8 jam, lama yah ~ Aku juga ko = I sleep 8 hours
every day, it’s long isn’t it? ~ Actually me too (I think that’s not
too long)

[6] loh / lho / lo

a. expressing surprise after hearing something

Loh, katanya ga mau ikut? ~ Pikir-pikir pengen juga = What? Didn’t you
say that you didn’t want to join us? ~ After thinking, I became more
interested.
Aku bolos aja deh ~ Loh, kenapa? = I think I will skip (the lecture)
(for now) ~ What?! Why is it?

b. You know? / I’ll let you know that …

Ikut dong, Adi aja ikut loh = Please join us, even Adi joined us, you know?
Jangan main api, nanti kebakar loh = Don’t play with fire, you may be
burned, you know?

c. asserting / making sure

Datang loh ke ultah Adi! = Don’t forget to come to Adi’s birthday party.
Ingat loh pesan saya! = Make sure you remember my advice.

[7] nih

a. comes from “ini” meaning “this”, indicating something related to
here / current time

Cape nih = I’m tired (now)
Besok aja bikin kalimatnya, lagi sibuk nih = How if we make the
sentences tomorrow, since I’m busy (now)

b. Are you really … ?

Udah mau pergi nih? = Are you really going now?

c. emphasizes the subject

Adi nih yang masak = The one who cooks is Adi, you know?

[8] sih

a. I wonder … (sometimes need answer, sometimes not)

Tadi Pak Adi ngomong apa sih? = I wonder what Pak Adi said just now.
Berapa sih harganya? = I wonder how much the price is.

b. expressing annoyance

Sebetulnya kamu lagi apa sih? = What are you EXACTLY doing?
Kenapa sih selalu telat? = Why are you always late?

c. Because

Kamu sih datangnya lama, jadi semua telat = Because you came up late,
everybody become late.
Aku sedih, kamu jahat sih = I’m sad, because you are evil.

d. selecting something different than the others

Karyawan di sana bodo-bodo yah? ~ Adi sih pinter, … = All staffs
there are stupid, aren’t they? ~ (All are stupid, except) Adi (which
is) smart.

e. But (sometimes the sentence stops there)

Semua soal bisa? ~ Bisa sih, cuma ada 1 yang ga = Did you successfully
do all the questions? Yes I did, but there is one that I didn’t.
Bisa main gitar? Bisa sih… = Can you play guitar? I can, but…

[9] tuh

See that! (I don’t want to do anything about it from now)

Makan tuh kuenya = Eat the cake (I don’t want to eat anymore)
Kamu tuh kerjanya tidur melulu = All you do is sleeping (I’m annoyed)

[10] ya / yah

a. Isn’t it (question tag, wondering)

Tadi itu Adi ya? = The one (you met) just now was Adi, wasn’t it?
Rapatnya mulai jam 8 ya? = The meeting starts at 8, isn’t it?

b. either .. or .. (if coupled with “kalau tidak” / “kalo ga”)

Aku pasti bawa sesuatu. Kalo ga sabun ya sampo = I will bring
something. Either soap or shampoo.
Kalo ga dimakan singa, ya digigit ular = You will be either eaten by a
lion or bitten by a snake.

c. then (used with “kalau (tidak)” / “kalo (ga)”)

Kalo ga bisa tidur ya baca buku telepon = If you cannot sleep, (then)
read the telephone directory.
Kalo bisa bawa catatan, kalo ga ya gapapa (tidak apa-apa) = If you
can, bring a notepad, but if cannot it’s okay.
Kalo tetep mau antri ya silakan saja = If you still want to queue,
it’s okay with me.

d. expressing dissatisfaction (in front of sentence)

Yah, Juventus kalah lagi = Sadly, Juventus is again lost.
Yah, kamu sih = It’s because of you, you know? (softly)

———— ——— ——— ——— ——— ——— –
Partikel dalam Percakapan Bahasa Indonesia
26 Nov 2005
http://www.kejut. com/partikelindo

by yuku

Ada banyak ‘partikel’ yang suka diomongin waktu ngomong bahasa
Indonesia. Orang asing yang belajar bahasa indo lalu datang ke indo
pasti bingung ko banyak kata yang ga ngerti yah? Malah kalo kita
sendiri ga pelajari, artinya pun ga tau. Misalnya, lagi makan baso,
lalu temen nanya dari belakang, “Lagi makan apa sih?”. Kata “sih” di
sini gada arti khususnya, cuma menunjukkan perasaan. Inilah enaknya
pake bahasa Indo daripada Inggris, soalnya banyak kata penanda
perasaan, seperti bahasa Jepang juga.

Kemarin ada bule nanya lewat imel, dia mau bikin suatu artikel
mengenai bahasa ‘kasar’ Indonesia, lalu minta ku cekin dulu dan minta
saran2 dsb. Ternyata karena orangnya uda belajar indo cukup lama,
bagus juga pembahasannya. Walaupun ada beberapa yang salah dan terasa
aneh. Jadi ku bantuin dan tambah beberapa kata baru.

Gara2 itu ku jadi tertarik dan mau coba bikin ulasannya di sini.
Semoga lumayan nyambung dan berguna untuk orang asing yang belajar
bahasa Indonesia. (Sebetulnya ku tulis artikel2 juga uda sedikit2 pake
partikel itu yah?)

Coba deh simak satu-satu:

[1] deh

a. How about …

Coba dulu deh = How about trying it first?
Lanjutin besok lagi deh = How about continuing it tommorow?

b. I think … / I decide …

Mau yang mana? ~ Yang biru deh = Which one do you want? ~ I think I’ll
choose the blue one.
Aku pergi deh = I think I’m going now / Better if I go.

[2] dong

a. indeed / of course / You should have known that …

Kamu dapet kue gratis juga? Dapet dong = Did you get the free cake? Of
course I got it.
Suka yang mana? (choosing a girl) ~ Yang itu dong = Which one do you
like? ~ Of course him/her (I think you think the same too)

d. soften a prohibition or command

example:
Jangan keras-keras dong (lagunya) = Don’t set it so loud please (the music)
Eh, kertasnya masukin semua dong = Hey, please insert all the paper!

[3] eh

a. Hey (requesting attention)

Eh, sini sebentar = Hey, come here for a minute!

b. Correcting incorrectly spoken words / “I mean”

Tadi kan aku kasih kamu dua ratus, eh dua ribu? = Didn’t I give you
two hundred… I mean two thousand?

c. By the way (changing topic)

Eh, inget ga tempat ini? = By the way, do you remember this place?

[4] kan

a. Isn’t it (question tag to assert)

Dia yang namanya Adi kan? = He is the one called Adi, right?
Bagus kan? = Good, isn’t it?

b. Didn’t you remember that …

Hah, dia mau datang? ~ Kan mu yang bilang, masa lupa? = Heh, he is
coming? ~ Wasn’t it you who said it to me, how can you forget?

c. Because

Kenapa ga masukin kulkas aja? ~ Mana cukup, kan kulkasnya kecil = Why
don’t you put it in the fridge? ~ It’s not enough, because the fridge
is small.

[5] ko / kok

Why (asking) / I wonder why (just expresses wonder)

Ko kamu telat? = Why are you late?
Ko bisa dia dipukul papanya, aneh = I wonder why he is attacked by his
father, it’s strange.

Actually … (denying assumption)

Makan di sana enak ga? Aku ga pernah ke sana ko = Is it nice to eat
there? Actually I haven’t been there (I don’t know)
Tiap hari aku tidur 8 jam, lama yah ~ Aku juga ko = I sleep 8 hours
every day, it’s long isn’t it? ~ Actually me too (I think that’s not
too long)

[4] kan

a. Isn’t it (question tag to assert)

Dia yang namanya Adi kan? = He is the one called Adi, right?
Bagus kan? = Good, isn’t it?

b. Didn’t you remember that …

Hah, dia mau datang? ~ Kan mu yang bilang, masa lupa? = Heh, he is
coming? ~ Wasn’t it you who said it to me, how can you forget?

c. Because

Kenapa ga masukin kulkas aja? ~ Mana cukup, kan kulkasnya kecil = Why
don’t you put it in the fridge? ~ It’s not enough, because the fridge
is small.

[5] ko / kok

a. Why (asking) / I wonder why (just expresses wonder)

Ko kamu telat? = Why are you late?
Ko bisa dia dipukul papanya, aneh = I wonder why he is attacked by his
father, it’s strange.

b. Actually … (denying assumption)

Makan di sana enak ga? Aku ga pernah ke sana ko = Is it nice to eat
there? Actually I haven’t been there (I don’t know)
Tiap hari aku tidur 8 jam, lama yah ~ Aku juga ko = I sleep 8 hours
every day, it’s long isn’t it? ~ Actually me too (I think that’s not
too long)

[6] loh / lho / lo

a. expressing surprise after hearing something

Loh, katanya ga mau ikut? ~ Pikir-pikir pengen juga = What? Didn’t you
say that you didn’t want to join us? ~ After thinking, I became more
interested.
Aku bolos aja deh ~ Loh, kenapa? = I think I will skip (the lecture)
(for now) ~ What?! Why is it?

b. You know? / I’ll let you know that …

Ikut dong, Adi aja ikut loh = Please join us, even Adi joined us, you know?
Jangan main api, nanti kebakar loh = Don’t play with fire, you may be
burned, you know?

c. asserting / making sure

Datang loh ke ultah Adi! = Don’t forget to come to Adi’s birthday party.
Ingat loh pesan saya! = Make sure you remember my advice.

[7] nih

a. comes from “ini” meaning “this”, indicating something related to
here / current time

Cape nih = I’m tired (now)
Besok aja bikin kalimatnya, lagi sibuk nih = How if we make the
sentences tomorrow, since I’m busy (now)

b. Are you really … ?

Udah mau pergi nih? = Are you really going now?

c. emphasizes the subject

Adi nih yang masak = The one who cooks is Adi, you know?

[8] sih

a. I wonder … (sometimes need answer, sometimes not)

Tadi Pak Adi ngomong apa sih? = I wonder what Pak Adi said just now.
Berapa sih harganya? = I wonder how much the price is.

b. expressing annoyance

Sebetulnya kamu lagi apa sih? = What are you EXACTLY doing?
Kenapa sih selalu telat? = Why are you always late?

c. Because

Kamu sih datangnya lama, jadi semua telat = Because you came up late,
everybody become late.
Aku sedih, kamu jahat sih = I’m sad, because you are evil.

d. selecting something different than the others

Karyawan di sana bodo-bodo yah? ~ Adi sih pinter, … = All staffs
there are stupid, aren’t they? ~ (All are stupid, except) Adi (which
is) smart.

e. But (sometimes the sentence stops there)

Semua soal bisa? ~ Bisa sih, cuma ada 1 yang ga = Did you successfully
do all the questions? Yes I did, but there is one that I didn’t.
Bisa main gitar? Bisa sih… = Can you play guitar? I can, but…

[9] tuh

See that! (I don’t want to do anything about it from now)

Makan tuh kuenya = Eat the cake (I don’t want to eat anymore)
Kamu tuh kerjanya tidur melulu = All you do is sleeping (I’m annoyed)

[10] ya / yah

a. Isn’t it (question tag, wondering)

Tadi itu Adi ya? = The one (you met) just now was Adi, wasn’t it?
Rapatnya mulai jam 8 ya? = The meeting starts at 8, isn’t it?

b. either .. or .. (if coupled with “kalau tidak” / “kalo ga”)

Aku pasti bawa sesuatu. Kalo ga sabun ya sampo = I will bring
something. Either soap or shampoo.
Kalo ga dimakan singa, ya digigit ular = You will be either eaten by a
lion or bitten by a snake.

c. then (used with “kalau (tidak)” / “kalo (ga)”)

Kalo ga bisa tidur ya baca buku telepon = If you cannot sleep, (then)
read the telephone directory.
Kalo bisa bawa catatan, kalo ga ya gapapa (tidak apa-apa) = If you
can, bring a notepad, but if cannot it’s okay.
Kalo tetep mau antri ya silakan saja = If you still want to queue,
it’s okay with me.

d. expressing dissatisfaction (in front of sentence)

Yah, Juventus kalah lagi = Sadly, Juventus is again lost.
Yah, kamu sih = It’s because of you, you know? (softly)