Tarekat Syattariyyah di Dunia Melayu-Indonesia (UI – 2003)

1 Jul

Berikut ini adalah Disertasi S3 tentang kajiuan naskah islam kuno,
yang diposting oleh pengarangnya. Semoga bermanfaat bagi para
pembacanya. Sesungguhnya dengan meng-upload ke dunia maya adalah
merupakan proteksi untuk mencefah upaya plagiarism dan duplikasi
penelitian. Semoga makin banyak orang Indonesia yang mengupload
karyanya di dunia maya, dan bisa bermanfaat untuk orang banyak. Amin.


Disertasi: Tarekat Syattariyyah di Dunia Melayu-Indonesia: Penelitian
Atas Dinamika dan Perkembangannya Melalui Naskah-naskah di Sumatra Barat

http://naskahkuno. wordpress. com/2007/ 01/09/disertasi- tarekat-syattari yyah-di-dunia- melayu-indonesia -penelitian- atas-dinamika- dan-perkembangan nya-melalui- naskah-naskah- di-sumatra- barat/

Disertasi ditulis oleh: Oman Fathurahman
Universitas Indonesia, 2003

Prof. Dr. Achadiati Ikram

Prof. Dr. Azyumardi Azra
Dr. Muhammad Luthfi

Ringkasan: Bahasa Indonesia

English Abstract

Pidato Promotor: Prof. Dr. Achadiati Ikram


Disertation: English Abstract

This research —which takes a philological and intellectual
history-social approach— focuses on efforts to reveal meaning in
religious manuscripts, in this case the manuscripts about Syattariyyah
order that emerged in West Sumatra. Ten Syattariyyah manuscripts,
written by three Syattariyyah ulama in West Sumatra —Imam Maulana
Abdul Manaf Amin, H. K. Deram, and Tuanku Bagindo Abbas Ulakan— were
primary sources for this research.

Aside from the ten manuscripts from West Sumatra mentioned above, in
order to measure the dynamics of the teachings of Syattariyyah order
in West Sumatra, two Arabic sources related to Syattariyyah, which are
considered to be reference sources for teaching Syattariyyah order in
the Malay-Indonesian Islamic world, were consulted. The first source
is al-Simt al-Majid, a Islamic mystical book written by Syaikh Ahmad
al-Qusyasyi, and the second is Ithaf al-Zaki bi Syarh al-Tuhfah
al-Mursalah Ila Ruh al-Nabi, by Ibrahim al-Kurani.

As a result of an intellectual analysis of the early Syattariyyah
manuscripts, we know that the Syattariyyah manuscripts in West Sumatra
were an important intellectual link between the writers, starting with
Syaikh Ahmad al-Qusyasyi, Syaikh Ibrahim al-Kurani, Syaikh Abdurrauf
al-Sinkili, and reaching the writers in West Sumatra by way of Syaikh
Burhanuddin Ulakan, an eminent student of al-Sinkili.

As can be seen from the manuscripts, the teachings of Syattariyyah
order in West Sumatra generally carried on the traditions that had
been previously formulated by prominent figures of Syattariyyah in
Haramayn, represented by al-Qusyasyi, and also by the ulama of
Syattariyyah in Aceh, in this instance represented by Abdurrauf
al-Sinkili. These teachings are mainly related to the practices of
zikir (religious recitation), behaviour and good manners in zikir, and
the formulation of zikir.

However, there are noticeable differences, particularly in relation to
the concepts of hakikat (religious truth) and the ultimate objectives
of zikir in Syattariyyah order. In Syattariyyah in West Sumatra, the
formulation of these concepts was more moderate than in the earlier
teachings of al-Qusyasyi and al-Sinkili. The Syattariyyah manuscripts
of al-Qusyasyi and al-Sinkili discuss the concept of fana —the
negation of self or the loss of individual limitations, and becoming
one with Allah, fana `an al-fana or fana `an fanaih, that is fana from
fana itself— as religious truth and the ultimate objective of zikir.
The Syattariyyah manuscripts of West Sumatra explain that religious
truth and zikir are “sufficient” to cleanse the soul, which allows
nearness with God, and to produce the feelings that allow for
certainty and evidence of religious truth and His Being (Wujud).

This inclination towards moderation is even clearer in the formulation
of mystico-philosophy doctrine. As is evident in the manuscripts
written by al-Kurani and al-Sinkili, they were still teaching the
wahdat al-wujud doctrine, though it was adapted to theories of
orthodox Islam, and thus this doctrine —which met with strong
opposition from the orthodox ulama— was more widely accepted. In the
Syattariyyah manuscripts of West Sumatra, the teachings of wahdat
al-wujud were not just more flexible, they were in fact removed from
all the teachings of Syattariyyah order, as they were considered to be
in conflict with the teachings of ahlussunnah wal jama’ah, and a
deviation from the practices of syari’at.

As a result, particularly since the 19th century, the teaching of
Syattariyyah order in West Sumatra without the wahdat al-wujud
doctrine is just one of this order’s unique characteristics and
tendencies. This is relatively different from the conclusions drawn by
scholars in the past, such as B. J. O. Schrieke, Karel A. Steenbrink,
Martin van Bruinessen, and several others, who argued that followers
of Syattariyyah order in West Sumatra were the group most active in
developing wahdat al-wujud, and clashed with Naqsybandiyyah order
adherents who developed the wahdat
al-syuhud doctrine.

After having contact with several local traditions and cultures, the
teaching style of Syattariyyah order was laden with local nuances.
Teachings about the relationship between the external body and the
internal self, for example, were formulated in what was known as
“pengajian tubuh” (teachings of body). Syattariyyah teachings, apart
from via conventional methods such as the recitation of al-Qur’an,
were also delivered through traditions that included local
characteristics, such as salawat dulang. Followers of Syattariyyah
order in West Sumatra also developed what is known as “Basapa”, a
Syattariyyah order ritual in Ulakan each Safar month (2nd month of the
Arabic calendar), a tradition that was strongly influenced by local


Bab 1: Pendahuluan
Bab 2: Gambaran Umum Tarekat Syattariyyah
Bab 3: Khazanah Naskah Syattariyyah di Dunia Melayu-Indonesia:
Deskripsi Beberapa Naskah Sumber
Bab 4: Tarekat dan Tradisi Keagamaan di Sumatra Barat
Bab 5: Deskripsi Naskah-naskah Syattariyyah di Sumatra Barat
Bab 6: Sifat dan Hubungan Antarnaskah Syattariyyah
Bab 7: Tarekat Syattariyyah di Sumatra Barat: Teks dan Konteks
Bab 8: Kesimpulan



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